Steam Table Chart Pdf
Steam table & psychrometric chart pdf free Download
If the experiment is repeated under different conditions, families of lines can be developed to obtain a complete chart. Related Searches Steam tables Steam and gas tables with computer equations Mechanical charts and tables. Process Identification The first stage is to identify the process. Kremers Urban Pharmaceuticals et. With practice and experience some of the steps soon become intuitive or obvious but initially the full process should be followed.
These have high accuracy but, since only discrete values in a continuum are presented, interpolation is often necessary to obtain the desired values. All other diagrams are related in that the parameters illustrated must maintain their relationship with one another. Each of these processes has important engineering applications. The value hfg is equivalent to the latent heat required to convert the water into steam. Consider the heating of water at different pressures each time maintaining the selected pressure constant.
As additional heat is added, the temperature of the steam increases but at a faster rate than when the water only was being heated. Similar formulae may be derived for internal energy u and entropy s. All relevant parameters may thus be obtained and plotted as families of curves on a temperature-entropy diagram.
Initially the cylinder contains only water at ambient temperature. The choice of diagram depends primarily on what is to be shown and what processes are constant. At this point the water is saturated. The slope however is temperature rise T over heat added q. If the points at which the water and steam respectively become saturated are joined up a saturated water line and a saturated steam line are formed.
Experimental determination of the properties allows the deviation from the gas laws to be ascertained. If various properties are to be measured, an experiment can be set up where water is heated in a vertical cylinder closed by a piston on which there is a weight. Processes occurring at constant conditions for example enthalpy will also follow the appropriate constant parameter line on the diagram.
These processes are simply horizontal lines or vertical lines respectively on a pressure- enthalpy diagram. Note that these lines all meet at the critical point.
Steam does however follow to some degree the gas laws, that is, as pressure increases specific volume decreases and as temperature increases specific volume increases. Failure to recognise this change in shape is a common fault in Thermodynamics. These changes can be shown on thermodynamic diagrams.
Many of these however allow the calculation of properties from temperature and pressure and not vice-versa so are limited in their usefulness unless additional iterative routines are devised. If given amounts of heat are added from an arbitrary zero condition for different pressure conditions, this heat q will be represented by the area under the respective constant pressure lines. The volume of the water hardly changes during this process.
Steam at temperatures above the saturation temperature is superheated. As this is heated the water changes into steam and certain characteristics may be noted. If the temperature T is plotted against the heat added q the three regions namely subcooled water, pdf-software saturated mixture and superheated steam are clearly indicated. This book also gives tables of values obtained from the equations so the application of any equation can be readily checked. Such equations are used for developing steam tables where each tabulated value is calculated.
Note that these have a steep slope in the saturated region but a lesser slope in the superheated region. Enthalpy can be obtained by measurement of the amount of heat added at constant pressure. Since heat added at constant pressure is equal to the enthalpy change this plot is really a temperature-enthalpy diagram.
If it has no fluid friction it is reversible adiabatic or isentropic as is the case in an ideal or frictionless turbine. These equations are usually polynomials with several constants. If it has fluid friction it is irreversible adiabatic or isenthalpic as is the case in a throttle.
Adding different amounts of heat will produce a family of constant enthalpy lines. As heat is added its temperature rises steadily until it reaches the saturation temperature corresponding with the pressure in the cylinder. If one of the initial conditions is unknown it is possible to work backwards along the process line from the known final conditions to find the unknown initial condition. It has previously been shown that a pressure-volume diagram is useful in showing mechanical cycles and that a temperature-entropy diagram is useful in showing thermodynamic cycles. Enoc Esau Santander Bravo.
Two other commonly used diagrams are the pressure- enthalpy diagram used for refrigeration cycles and the enthalpy-entropy diagram used for steam turbines. Specific volume can be obtained by measurement of the physical size of the container. With non-flow processes the working fluid is contained within a system and undergoes change from an initial to a final condition. These processes are also simply horizontal and vertical lines respectively on an enthalpy-entropy diagram. Furthermore a change in enthalpy on such a diagram shows the work done by the turbine and a change in entropy indicates the degree of irreversibility and hence loss in the turbine.
Steam Table With Mollier Diagram R S Khurmi (S I Units)
In refrigeration cycles some processes occur at either constant pressure or constant enthalpy. Commercially available programs are available on computer diskettes.
To overcome this problem the calculated values which would be plotted are instead presented in tabular form in a set of thermodynamic tables. This plot shows just one line of a temperature-entropy chart.
The non-flow processes previously described and listed below can all occur in steady flow devices. The temperature however remains the same until all the water has been converted into steam. It is not always sufficiently accurate to read values from such a diagram. Consider the heating of water at constant pressure.
These changes can also be shown on thermodynamic diagrams. To convert a temperature-entropy diagram into an enthalpy-entropy diagram the entire diagram is rotated slightly and stretched such that the constant enthalpy lines become horizontal. Certain steam and water properties can be determined by experiment and others subsequently by calculation from basic formulae already given.
As more heat is added, steam is generated and the volume increases dramatically since the steam occupies a greater space than the water from which it was generated. The change in enthalpy h is equal to the heat added q under constant pressure conditions. Within the saturated water-steam mixture region there are intermediate conditions. Eventually, at very high pressures, the density of the steam becomes equal to that of the water and no latent heat is required to expand the fluid. These areas must all be equal for a given amount of heat added and thus a given change in enthalpy.
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